Passive fire protection system is an encompassing fire safety concept, which embraces the passive measures in fire containment design, and in addition, augments the active measures. It is the proactive approach taken at the building design stage, aimed at addressing a comprehensive solution to the fire problem.
It is the primary measure integrated within the constructional fabric of a building to provide inherent fire safety and protection by responding against flame, heat and smoke to maintain the fundamental requirements of building compartmentation, structural stability, fire separation and safe means of escape.
The characteristics of passive fire protection system is achieves its intended purpose by raising the fire resistance of the structure, protecting the structure against the effects of fire, reducing fire spread through secondary ignition, limiting the movement of flame and smoke, and minimizing the danger of fire – induced collapse or structural distortion.
Passive fire protection design, incorporating passive fire protection materials, systems and assemblies, serves by fire containment to protect life, safeguard the building structures, protect assets, maintain building serviceability after fire, minimize rebuild costs, and facilitate quick business recovery and continuity.
The system do not require any type of out source power to function in case of fire. It is in the form of fire rated doors, barrier, ceilings, and structural fire protection. The overall aim of passive system is to contain fire by:
use of fire rated partitions and doors to prevent the fire and smoke from moving one compartment to another
delaying the collapse of the building structure
delaying the growth of fire